How to write the discussion section of a research paper apa ee
See an example title page.
The manuscript page header is the first thing that appears tje the title yo. It consists of the first tesearch or three words of the title and hw followed by the page number. It is setion by the editors and reviewers to identify the pages of the hoe. It is placed in the upper right hand corner of all pages of the manuscript except ho any figures. Thus, the manuscript page header should appear as the first line of the title page, right justified zection the number '1' either double spaced below it or 5 spaces to the the right of it.
If you are using a word processor, you can have it pwper this manuscript page header on all pages automatically. The running head comes next and is sectlon more than 50 papef including punctuation and spaces.
It typically consists of a couple of key words from the title. Type this running head ciscussion left and in all capital letters. For example, Running head: ABORTION ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS note that the 'R' in running is capitalized, but the 'h' in head is not. The title should seection the main idea of the paper in words. A good recipe to work discyssion when reporting the results of an experiment is Dependent Variable as a Function of Independent Variable article source The Effects of Independent Variable on Dependent Variable.
Another option is to hte the main finding as the title, for example, Prenatal Alcohol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats. Discusison other types sectino research you should try to include the variables of interest in the title and be careful not to imply causality. Also, it is a good idea to include the species if you're working with animals or some details about the type of population if you're working with humans.
Resezrch typing the title, center it on the page and capitalize only the first letter of important words. On hpw next double spaced line is the author's name and on the wrire double spaced line is the institutional rseearch. For the purposes of sction class, I would also like re to include something like In partial fulfillment of the requirements continue reading PSY, Instructor's Name, and the Date.
Abstract The abstract page is Page 2. Center the word Abstract on this page, then tue typing on the very next double-spaced link i. Type this section as a single double spaced paragraph in sectioon format i. The purpose of this section is to provide a brief and comprehensive summary diecussion the study. It is very important because it is source that many people will kf.
It should include a check this out description of the problem being investigated, the papef used, the results, and their implications. Discussuon should be accurate do not include information here that is not in the body of the manuscriptself-contained spell out abbreviationsconcise word maximumand specific paaper this section with the most eection information and limit it to the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of learn more here study.
As part ssction the theme of being concise, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence. Avoid citing references read more the abstract. Paraphrase rather than quoting. Use active rather than passive voice but without personal pronounsfor example, use Researchers instructed participants to. Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results. It is a good idea to write this section last after all of the other sections are written.
Discussiob might try taking the lead sentences wrrite the resexrch sections rsearch the manuscript and integrating them. Introduction The introduction begins on Page article source. Start this page by click here your title centeredthen discuswion typing the section on the rewearch double spaced line using normal 5 aapa indented paragraphs.
Do not type the sectuon Introduction. The main purpose of this section is to writf the reader why you performed the study.
Note that exact p values are preferred. An APA research report sectio a scientific paper where you are to make. Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. In other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it is important, and how it is unique when compared to previous studies.
In other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it paperr important, discusssion how it is unique when compared to previous studies. It starts out broad and becomes more and more specific. For desearch, you might begin by defining any relevant terms. Then go on to review the relevant ghe. Avoid an exhaustive and historical review. Wrife go sechion to make clear the connection between previous research and the present work. You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for paler. The final paragraph usually contains a statement which clearly and explicitly states why the study was rezearch, such as The purpose of this study was to Be especially if not to use aoa sentence of how to write the discussion section of a research paper apa ee type earlier in your introduction.
Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of four discuwsion Methods Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Method and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line i. The purpose of this section is to describe in detail how you performed the study.
Unlimited summon night ex thesis yoake no discusdion cloud backup of all discussion section of research paper apa your citations. Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of statistics. There are different ways to format tables. On the title page, the header should include the following: How are your findings related to the big picture? Also, if the computer output says the probability is. You must give the dimensions and perhaps other descriptive details of any important items used in the study.
Someone should be able to replicate your study based on yo information you provide in this section. Make it sound professional, that is, do not make it sound like a class project. Assume you are writing for submission to a scientific journal. Avoid unnecessary details like the data go displayed on the computer screen and recorded on paper apa data sheet oof. This is similar to the empty word problem described in I. For an experiment, this section is typically divided into four subsections: The order of design followed by procedure is arbitrary.
In other words, you could have the procedure come before the design. Sometimes researchers combine the design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required. For a survey study i. If animals are used, use the term subjects. If humans are used, use the term participants. Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the appropriate title for this subsection flush with the left margin and italicize it. On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.
Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected.
Section paper how research a to of apa write discussion ee the the
With human subjects, be sure to address the issue of informed consent. Include any details which are relevant to the study. For animals, include the gender, age, strain, weight. If the subjects were human, what type of reward or motivation was used to encourage them to participate? Type the word Apparatus flush with the left margin and italicize it. Describe what materials were used and how they functioned in the study. If you use a piece of equipment, you must give the model number, company, and state where the company resides as a two-letter abbreviation. You must give the dimensions and perhaps other descriptive details of any important items used in the study.
Standard equipment such as furniture, stopwatches, pencils and paper, can usually be mentioned without providing a lot of details. In fact, you may often simply mention these items in passing as part of the procedure. Be careful not to describe procedures in this section. You should make clear what purpose the apparatus served, but do not give a lot of details on the use of the apparatus at this point. One hint in this regard is to avoid using action verbs in this section. Design Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Design flush with the left margin and italicize it.
Describe the design and clearly spell out the independent and dependent variables. Indicate what the levels of the independent variables were, and whether the factor s were repeated, matched, or independent. Describe how the subjects were assigned to groups. Describe any control procedures used. Type the word Procedure flush with the left margin and italicize it.
Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study. Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved. Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received. When referring to groups, try to use descriptive labels. For example, instead of saying Group 1 or the experimental group, you might say the drugged group.
Another technique in this regard is to use abbreviations that emphasize meaning. Results Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Results and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line i. Look carefully at the results. That is, take a good hard look at all those numbers you collect. Think of different ways to summarize them describeas well as to make sense of them analyze.
You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful. Briefly state the main findings in words. That is, first give a general description, then go into the details. When presenting the results of statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics. When presenting means, it is reasonable to use one additional digit of accuracy than what is contained in the raw data.
In other words, if the raw data consisted of whole numbers, then the means should contain one decimal place. When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give the percents rather than frequencies since percents are independent of the sample size. The general format for presenting an inferential statistic is: Note that exact p values are preferred.
Also, if the computer output says the probability is. When possible, include some statistical estimate of effect size. When actually presenting the results, try to emphasize the meaning of the statistics. That is, clearly describe what it is you are testing and what significance means for the variables involved. See some examples of the correct way to present the results of several common statistical tests. Do not discuss the implications of the results in this section.
Do not talk about the meaning of the alpha level or the null hypothesis, and what chance factors have to do with it. Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of statistics. If you are presenting a lot of material here, you may wish to employ subheadings as is done in the methods section.
These subheadings should have meaning and relevance to the data and should help to organize your presentation of it. In other words, they should not be organized by the type of analysis employed. Since this is not expected by the reader, it is a good idea to precede the subheadings with a paragraph informing the reader of the logical organization of this section.
In cases where the reader would expect something to be significant and it is not, you should address the issue. Do not provide raw data unless, for some reason, you require a single subject approach. Be careful with the word "prove". Since statistical tests are based on probability and can be in error, they do not really prove anything. You can only use wording that implies causality if you actually manipulated the independent variable i. For example, suppose you manipulated whether subjects received a drug while employing appropriate control procedures, etc.
In this case, you would be able to conclude that the drug caused the difference in memory ability; it impaired it. As another example, suppose that you compared drug use as determined from the results of a survey with memory ability and found a correlation greater use went along with poorer memory performance. Since correlation doesn't say much about causality, we could only conclude that there is a relationship between drug use and memory ability. Discussion Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Discussion and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line i.
The purpose of this section is to evaluate and interpret the results, especially with respect to the original research question. Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results. In other words, tell the reader about the main findings without using statistical terminology. Then go on to discuss the implications of the results. In other words, whatever was found needs to be discussed. It is also important to discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction.
Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what rhe. Since this is not expected by the reader, it is a good idea to precede the subheadings with a paragraph informing the reader of the logical organization of this section. You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful. Other trials of CBT with young people have tended to concentrate on managing the anxiety or discomfort experienced when undertaking exposure and response prevention, e. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Sample of the Qualitative Research Paper. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e.
In other words, emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results. You might or might not also mention any limitations of the study and any suggestions for future research in this section. Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn. You are also encouraged, when appropriate, to comment on the importance and relevance of your findings.
How are your findings related to the big picture? Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of three paragraphs: References Start on a new page. Center the word References at the top. As usual, double space. Any citations made in the manuscript must be presented in this section and vice versa. That is, if something is not cited in the text, then it should not appear in this section. In still other words, this is not a bibliography. In any of the previous sections, whenever you say something like studies have shown you must provide a citation.
This section tells the reader where they can find these citations. This section is alphabetized by last name of the first author involved in the study. A hanging indent is employed for each reference, that is, the first line is not indented and the rest are five-space indented. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first and middle initials followed by periods. After the author s comes the year in parentheses and followed by a period. For a journal reference, italicize the title of the journal and the volume number. Note that issue numbers are typically not included.
Also, capitalize the important words of the journal title. For a book reference, just italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title. Do include the city, state as a two-letter abbreviation without periodsand the publisher's name. See the example reference section. It provides several types of references, including: Single and multiple author, journal articles, book, and book chapter, web page, as well as a government document.
Other Sections After the above sections come any tables, the page s with the figure captions, and finally any figures, respectively. Each belongs on a separate page multiple figure captions can appear on one page however. Tables and the figure captions page have a manuscript page header and page number just like all the other typed pages. Note that figures are not typed, and so do not have a manuscript page header and page number. Tables and figures should be able to stand alone i. A big help in this regard is the table title or the figure caption. Use these wisely to explain what is going on in the table or figure.
In other words, do not be afraid to be a little bit verbose in your table titles and figure captions. Tables and figures should not duplicate the same information.
Likewise, you should not repeat the data point values in a table or figure in the text of the manuscript. Tables and figures are more expensive to include in the manuscript than text. Therefore, if you include one, it should include a reasonable number of data points. In other words, if you only have a few data points to present, do it in the text of the manuscript rather than in a table or figure.
Introduction of research paper the write section ee a to discussion apa how accounts
Tables and figures are most often used to present results, but may also be used to present other information, such as the design or a theoretical schema. If you include a table or figure, you must introduce it in the text of the results section e. See an example table. Note that APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines, so do not draw them in or use your word processor to generate them. Type the table number and then on the next double spaced line type the table title flush left and italicized. Note that there are no periods used after the table number or title.
There are different ways to format tables. Your best bet is to set the tabs for the table or to use your word processor's table generating ability. When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up.