Essay on kennewick man
Area Indian tribes sought to rebury the man they called the Ancient One and revered as an kennrwick.
The federal government agreed, but eight anthropologists and archaeologists sued for the eknnewick to study knnewick skeleton, widely known as Kennewick Man. The case dragged on for years, attended by controversies over the handling of the bones, the burial of the discovery site, and statements by some plaintiffs, amplified and distorted in popular accounts, essay on kennewick man appeared to kfnnewick Kennewick Man was "Caucasian" and that Europeans may have reached America before Indians did.
Scientific studies, ironically conducted by the government in an effort ma support kenneick decision to turn the remains over to the Indians rather than allow studies by the plaintiffs, showed that Kennewick Man was not like Europeans, Indians, or any modern peoples. In early kennnewick appeals court affirmed a prior decision that the plaintiff scientists would be allowed to study Kennewick Man.
Students Will Click here and Dave Deacy found a skull while wading through the shallow water on their way to view hydroplane races. Benton County coroner Floyd Johnson, responsible for continue reading human remains, thought the skull appeared unusually old.
He called in his friend James Chatters, a self-employed anthropologist who mam assisted him in prior investigations. Searching the riverbank and shallow water that evening and over the next few days Chatters esszy others located more than bones and bone fragments that made kenneewick a nearly-complete skeleton.
The initial discovery received only minimal attention in the press. The fallout was immediate. Although Chatters went on to caution, at the press conference and afterward, that he dssay not essya Europeans reached the Americas before the ancestors of American Indians did, his announcement led to widespread media speculation raising precisely that possibility. Local Indian leaders expressed dismay. Handling and examination of the skeleton, especially the destruction of a small piece of bone as part of essxy radiocarbon dating process, violated religious beliefs that the remains of ancestors should not be viewed or disturbed.
Indians Seek the Ancient One Armand Minthorn, a board member of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, located in Oregon 40 to 50 miles southeast of Kennewick, kenewick "How would you feel if we came into your cemetery and dug up your ancestors? Minthorn, who became a leading figure in the struggle to rebury the man, immediately asked the U.
Army Corps of Engineers to ensure that the ancient skeleton was not subjected to additional examination, as did representatives of the Yakama Indian Nation. The Read article of Engineers had legal jurisdiction over the remains because it managed the federal property where they were found. Asserting its jurisdiction, three days after the press click here the Corps ordered Benton County kkennewick to obtain the disputed remains from Chatters and turn them over to the Corps.
The bones were briefly held in the county evidence locker, then Chatters and Johnson packed them for transfer to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, which the Corps designated to hold them until the dispute was resolved. Within days, the Umatilla Tribes, supported by the Yakama, Wanapum, and Colville tribes from Washington and the Nez Ewsay from Idaho, presented a claim under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act NAGPRA for the Ancient One to be turned over to them kennewivk reburial. Enacted by Congress in following extensive negotiation between Indian tribes, scientists, and museums, NAGPRA requires "repatriation" to Indian tribes keennewick some affiliated human remains and artifacts held in museum collections.
It also provides that "Native American human remains" discovered on federal land belong to the Indian tribe with the closest cultural affiliation. On September 17,the Corps of Engineers published a formal "Notice of Intent to Repatriate" the Kennewick remains to the Umatilla. Lawsuit Challenges NAGPRA Even before his press conference, Chatters, fearing that the remains would quickly be repatriated under NAGPRA, had begun contacting anthropologists and archaeologists around the country in an effort to head off that result.
Chatters found support from other scientists for his view that NAGPRA was a flawed law that gave too much control to Indian tribes and thwarted research. In particular, some prominent figures studying the first peoples to inhabit the Americas, om to as Paleo-Indians or Paleo-Americans, saw the law as threatening their entire field. Very few "Paleo-American" remains more than 9, years old had so far been discovered, and if NAGPRA allowed tribes kemnewick prevent study of newly discovered ancient remains, they might not be able to add to this scant data.
The Kennewick Man case kennewidk an opportunity to challenge NAGPRA.
On October 16, essqy, eight scientists esay suit in visit web page district court in Portland, Oregon, to block repatriation and gain the right to study the skeleton. The eight plaintiffs in Bonnichsen v. United States included five physical anthropologists C.
Loring Brace, Richard Jantz, Douglas Owsley, George Gill, and D. Gentry Steele and three archaeologists Robson Bonnichsen, Dennis J. Owsley and Stanford were at the Smithsonian Institution and the others held university positions. To help make their case, the plaintiff scientists, in their court pleadings and in the media, asserted the great kennewickk importance of the Kennewick discovery.
In part, this was based on the rarity of remains that old in Kennewivk America essag the relative completeness of the Kennewick skeleton. However, the plaintiffs also emphasized kennewicm claim that Kennewick Man differed markedly from modern American Indians and appeared more like Europeans. Press accounts highlighted statements by various plaintiffs using the terms Caucasian and Caucasoid to describe Kennewick Man and citing theories that the first settlers of the Americas may have come from Europe. The suggestion that they were not related to the Ancient One and the implication that Indian peoples were relative newcomers in their homeland were direct affronts to fundamental beliefs.
The case dragged on for years, attended by controversies over the handling of the bones, the burial of the discovery site, om statements by some plaintiffs, amplified and distorted in popular accounts, that appeared to suggest Kennewick Man was "Caucasian" and that Click to see more may have reached America before Indians did. From Red kennewici mummies in pre-Inca graves in Peru to blond headed Toltek warrior priests in central Mexico, this is not the history of your father's generation. When the body was first found, people thought it was a homicide victim. According to Professor Weiss, osteologists can link back through history about what our ancestors were like by their race and bone structure, to determine how long ago they lived. What values does he hold for them? A broken infected elbow, crushed chest and separated ribs, and a fractured skull that all healed, he lived a brutal life but survived all of theses injuries. The plaintiffs praised the decision.
Minthorn, the Umatilla leader, explained: We know how time began and how Indian people were created. They can say whatever they want, the scientists. They are being disrespectful" Thomas, xxii. To the scientist plaintiffs, it was Indian leaders who were trying to impose their beliefs on everyone else. This is information that the American public has the right to know" Thomas, xxvi.
In turn, some Indian leaders pointed out that the pursuit of scientific knowledge had often come at a high price for Indian people. Colville Tribe Attorney General Marla Big Boy stated: The type of scientific and professional arrogance of the Bonnichsen et al. What is happening today is similar to the scientific purposes of yesterday" Thomas, xxvi.
The Colville statement reflected the contentious and painful history between Indians and scientists that dates back to the beginnings of archaeology and anthropology in the nineteenth century. As later generations of scientists such as Stephen Jay Gould demonstrated, early anthropological classifications of people were based on overtly racist principles. White scientists of European descent used measurements of body parts, especially skulls, not only to classify humans into different races but to rank the purported "superiority" and "inferiority" of those races.
These racial classification studies required many samples to analyze, so nineteenth and early twentieth century anthropologists and archaeologists avidly sought as many skulls and skeletons as they could, depositing them in collections in major museums. While bones and body parts of all groups, including some leading white scientists who posthumously donated their own, were represented, huge numbers of Indian remains -- more than-- ended up in museum collections.
Many human remains and artifacts were excavated from Indian burial sites without permission or over the objections of living tribal members.
The reaction against these practices and their results became one of the driving forces behind the passage of NAGPRA. Scientific Debate Although the media and the subsequent court decisions tended to portray the Kennewick Man lawsuit as a dispute between scientists and Indians or between science and religion, the reality was more complex. The scientific community itself was sharply divided by the case, which provoked spirited debate in anthropological publications. For some, NAGPRA was not anti-science, but important human rights legislation. Some anthropologists and archaeologists questioned claims for the great importance of the Kennewick find while others argued that learning to work co-operatively with Indian communities would be a more productive means of getting to study future finds.
Straus, an expert in early European culture who rebutted suggestions that early inhabitants of the Americas came from that culture, said: Many anthropologists expressed concern that by describing Kennewick Man in racial terms, Chatters and the plaintiffs risked inadvertently resurrecting the outmoded concepts of race that had tainted early anthropological and archaeological studies.
Later generations of scientists had discredited not only the idea of racial superiority but also the whole idea of races as fixed and immutable biological categories. Although racial terms such as Caucasoid are still frequently used by forensic anthropologists like Chatters for distinguishing among modern population groups, Chatters acknowledged in hindsight that "Caucasoid" was not a good choice of words for the ancient Kennewick remains.
The scientist plaintiffs were soon joined by the Asatru Folk Assembly, a U. Claiming Kennewick Man as an ancestor, Asatru intervened in the lawsuit to demand further tests and custody of the remains if those tests confirmed a "European origin," but ultimately abandoned its action. Missing Bones Two decisions by Magistrate Judge John Jelderks, to whom the Kennewick Man lawsuit was assigned, did not resolve the case. He faulted the way the Corps had made its decision to repatriate the remains, and ordered the agency to reopen the matter and to address a series of questions, beginning with whether NAGPRA even applied to Kennewick Man.
Soon after that order, a series of controversies erupted over the over the handling of the bones and the site where the remains were discovered. First came news that although the Corps denied the plaintiffs access to the remains for study, it had allowed Indian groups to hold ceremonies in the presence of the bones while they were stored at the Richland laboratory.
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The plaintiffs, Chatters, and others expressed outrage that the Indian groups had been allowed to place materials in the containers holding the bones as part of their ceremonies, fearing that the resulting contamination could hamper future studies. Charges and counter-charges became even more heated in Marchwhen an inventory revealed that some bone pieces sections of both femurs, the long upper leg bone that Chatters had examined in were no longer among the remains.
Chatters denounced the Corps for failing to properly preserve the bones and allowing some to be stolen, while the government began an investigation that reportedly focused on Chatters and Johnson, although no charges resulted. As it turned out, Johnson announced in Junethat he had found the missing femur pieces in the county evidence locker, where they had apparently remained since It appeared that the remains had eroded out of the riverbank not long before being discovered.
As early asthe tribes expressed concern that additional erosion could result in exposure of more remains or artifacts, leading to looting by souvenir hunters. Shortly afterward, the Corps announced that it would "armor" the bank to provide permanent protection against erosion or disturbances. The plaintiffs, Chatters, and others protested in the media and to elected officials that the Corps' plan would bury the site and prevent further research.
My Argument The fight for some of the Native American tribes essay on kennewick man become federally recognized is a struggle and has been for many years. Goal setting is an actual process in which positively guides essay on kennewick man into understanding what level they are currently performing at and also what level they want to go on to. And that estimated his weight which was about pounds. Landau and Steele both believe that reburying Indian remains prevent anthropologists, such as themselves from important discoveries about our history of the people who lived before we did. In ancient cities of South America, some of which may have been populated by over 50, people, were found the mummies of Caucasoid nobles buried in the bowels of ancient temples.
Both houses of Congress passed legislation, sponsored by Representative Doc Hastings b. However, the plaintiffs did not seek a court order prohibiting the action. In April,before Congress gave final approval to the legislation, the Corps, asserting it had to move quickly due to salmon-related restrictions, completed the stabilization project, placing tons of rock and dirt onto the muddy bank and topping that with dense plantings. Francis McManamon, chief archaeologist of the National Park Service, was put in charge of developing the information needed for the government to decide on a disposition of Kennewick Man.
Ironically, the plan McManamon developed to do so involved many of the studies that the scientist plaintiffs advocated and the tribes opposed. However, considered as a whole, the remains were unlike any modern population whether Indian, European, Polynesian, or other. These findings did not end the debate over whether Kennewick Man belonged to a population ancestral to American Indians. The government panel stressed that the lack of physical resemblance did not rule out a connection, given the amount of time involved. Some leading anthropologists agreed, pointing out that "racial" characteristics are not unchanging over time, and that changes in environment and lifestyle can lead in just a few generations to dramatic changes in the type of skull and bone features on which classifications are based.
Chatters and other anthropologists, however, continued to argue that the differences between Kennewick Man and other ancient remains and modern Indian populations indicated several distinct waves of migration to the Americas. While scientists sharply debated the significance of the lack of physical similarities between Kennewick Man and modern Indians, that finding became crucial in the legal battle, as the courts eventually ruled that remains are subject to NAGPRA only if there is a proven connection between them and existing Indian tribes.
The Interior Department had interpreted "Native American human remains," to which NAGPRA applies, to include any remains predating the documented arrival of Europeans in Since the Kennewick remains clearly predated as additional radiocarbon tests confirmedthis left only the question of whether the tribes claiming Kennewick Man were the most closely affiliated and thus entitled to repatriation. The Department authorized DNA tests in an effort to learn whether genetic connections between Kennewick Man and the tribal claimants or others could be established, but no suitable DNA was found.
However, after studying other evidence, in particular analyzing oral traditions, Department experts determined that Kennewick Man was culturally affiliated with the tribal claimants. The Courts Rule The plaintiffs returned to Magistrate Judge Jelderks, who issued his third decision in the case on August 30, He concluded that because NAGPRA defines "Native American" in the present tense -- "of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture that is indigenous to the United States" 25 U. Jelderks decided that no such relation had been proven for Kennewick Man -- the scientific studies do not show a physical relation with any modern population, and Jelderks declared the evidence of oral tradition insufficient.
The government and tribes appealed, but in a decision issued February 4,a panel of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed with Judge Jelderks that NAGPRA applies only to remains with a significant genetic or cultural connection to existing tribes or cultures. The panel also agreed that there was no evidence of such a relation between Kennewick Man and the tribes claiming the remains. The plaintiffs praised the decision. Bonnichsen said, "This is a win for science, for openness and against an attempt at censorship" Paulson.
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Rob Roy Smith, the lawyer who argued for the tribes, said: The tribes also planned to work to limit destructive testing on the bones and to press for reburial of the Ancient One after studies are completed. Judge Jelderks blocked those plans, at least temporarily, when he ruled on August 17,that future court proceedings would be limited to the government and the plaintiffs, excluding the tribes from further participation. The plaintiffs hoped to begin their studies by the end of This essay made possible by: Humanities Washington Area of Columbia Park where Kennewick Man was found, Kennewick, Washington Courtesy Kennewick Man Virtual Interpretive Center Dr.
James Chatters Armand Minthorn, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Courtesy National Environmental Policy Commission Sources: Kennewick Man and the First Americans New York: Politics, Science, Race, and the Story of Kennewick Man New York: Copernicus, ; Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man New York: Apes, People, and Their Genes Berkeley: University of California Press, ; David Hurst Thomas, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity New York: Hill, "Kennewick Man Will Go to Scientists," The Oregonian, February 5,Website accessed February 5, http: United States, F.
Oregon, ; Bonnichsen v. United StatesF.